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2016年职称英语《卫生B》考试真题答案
2016-04-08 11:08:46 来源: 作者: 【 】 浏览:2784次 评论:0
第1部分:词汇选项(第1-15题,每题1分,共15分) 下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。
  1.It was unfortunate that she had erased the message.
  A. heard of         B. rubbed out         C. looked at        D. spoken out
 
  2.He was obsessed with American horror movies.
  A. kept thinking about         B. took advantage of
  C. paid no attention to         D. cared nothing about
 
  3. The firemen made a spectacular rescue yesterday.
  A. timely         B. wonderful         C. clever        D. cooperative
 
  4. I have earned a lot of money,but that is not the issue.
  A. goal          B. task         C. point       D. key
 
  5 He endured unbearable agonies before he finally passed away.
  A. left          B. died          C. relaxed           D. key
 
  6 The union called off the strike at the last minute yesterday.
  A. staged         B. lengthened         C. organized          D. cancelled.
 
  7. Oil leaking from a boat or ship may pose a hazard to drinking water.
  A. odor         B. danger         C. disease           D. smell
 
  8. There has been a lot of debate among us about the necessity to save money.
  A. discussion         B. talk           C.suggestions          D.ideas
 
  9. Your accusation is wholly without foundation.
  A. almost         B. probably           C.completely          D. evidently
 
  10. The woman living next door is extremely slender.
  A. tall          B. weak         C.slim          D. pale
 
  11. He came back home fatigued.
  A. exhausted         B. scared         C. worried           D. frightened
 
  12. She was unwilling to go, but she had no choice.
  A. ready         B. angry         C. sorry           D. reluctant
 
  13. The economy continued to exhibit signs of decline in October.
  A. mark         B. record         C. carry           D. show
 
  14. I believe that her account of what happened is very accurate.
  A. simple         B. vivid         C. close           D. satisfied
 
  15. He based his conclusion on the evidence given by the prisoner.
  A. offered         B. worked         C. made           D. satisfied
 
        参考答案:1-15:BABCB  DBACC  ADDDC 
第2部分:阅读判断(第16-22题,每题1分,共7分)
  下面的短文后列出了 7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是 正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请 选择C。
 
  Baseline Exam Is Key to Eye Health
 
  Even people with no signs or risk factors for eye disease can suffer vision loss and need to get baseline  eye exams at age 40, says the American Academy of Ophthalmology The reminder (提示) is part of the AAO's EyeSmart campaign to mark Save Your Vision Month in February.
  "Many eye diseases progress without any warning signs," Dr. Stephanie Marioneaux,a initical correspondent for the AAO, said in a prepared statement. "Gradual changes in vision can affect your ability to function independently and have confidence in your abilities. "
  Based on the findings from the initial screening, an eye doctor will create a schedule for follow-up eye exams.
  People of any age who have symptoms of eye disease or are at high risk due to family history, diabetes  or high blood pressure should consult with their eye doctor to determine how often they should have their eyes checked, the AAO recommends.
  By 2020, 43 million Americans will be at significant risk for vision loss or blindness due to age-related eye diseases such as cataracts  and glaucoma  That's a more than 50 percent increase over the current number of Americans with such vision-threatening diseases.
  But many Americans are unconcerned about the risk of vision loss. Only 23 percent of Americans are very concerned about losing their vision, while most feel weight gain and joint or back pain are greater worries than vision loss, according to an AAO survey conducted for its EyeSmart campaign.
  16. People with no signs of eye disease don’t need any eye exams.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  17. Changes in vision cannot affect people’s lives.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  18. There’s a great shortage of eye doctors in the US.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  19. High blood pressure is one of the risk factors for eye disease.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  20. Older people are at higher risk for vision loss or blindness.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  21 Most Americans are worried about the risk of vision loss.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
  22 eigh gain and joint or back pain are big worries in Europe.
  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
 
        参考答案:16-22:BBCAA  BC
第3部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23-30题,每题1分,共8分)
  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23-26题要求从所给的6个选项中为指定段落每段选 择1个小标题;(2)第27〜30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。
 
  Ebola Outbreak
 
  1 You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak. Ebola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection. Scientists believe that humans contracted the virus by eating the meal of rare animals. It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus.
  2 To date, there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. However, other countries such as Nigeria have reported confirmed cases of Ebola within their borders.
  3 Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries, your risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero. Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS, the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person. Specifically, Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids. Though, the virus is transmittable,only an infected person exhibiting symptoms is communicable.
  4 The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus. Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection. Symptoms include disgust, weakness and stomach pain. More uncommon symptoms include chest pain, bleeding and sore throat.
  5 Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body,s inflammatory response, causing the flu-like symptoms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism ,making bleeding even more severe. Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion ultimately lead to organ failure and death.
  6 The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years. While diseases such as the malaria are far more communicable, Ebola is one of the world’s most fatal viral infections. Ebola’s fatality rate exceeds that of SARS.
  Paragraph 2
  Paragraph 3
  Paragraph 4
  Paragraph 5
 
  A Am I at risk of contracting the virus?
  B How do I know if I have contracted the virus?
  C What caused the Ebola outbreak?
  D What exactly does Ebola do to the body?
  E Is the current outbreak the deadliest?
  F What areas are currently affected7
 
  27 The initial Ebola outbreak was found in
  28 The difference between SARS and Ebola viruses I
  29 The symptoms of the patients after being infected
  30 The Ebola virus transmits by contact with lies in may first appear
 
  A infected body fluids
  B the mode of transmission
  C within a wide range of days
  D three countries in West Africa
  E against the outbreak severity
  F the initial days of being infected
 
        参考答案:23-30:DAC  EECFA
第4部分:阅读理解(第31-45题,每题3分,共45分)
  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。
 
  第一篇 More American Getting High Blood Pressure
 
  The number of Americans with high blood pressure is on the rise thanks in large part to growing rates of obesity ,researchers said on Tuesday.
  But increasing numbers of those with high blood pressure, also called hypertension are getting the condition treated, researchers from the US government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) wrote in the journal Hypertention.
  High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure or kidney (Jff) failure. It is sometimes called the “silent killer” because it has no symptoms, and many people have it for years without knowing it.
  Data spanning six years through 2004 showed that 29 percent of US adults had high blood pressure, compared to 24 percent in the six-year period ending in 1994,the researchers said.
  “The percentage of the population with high blood pressure is going the wrong way ---it’s increasing,” Dr. Jeffrey Cutler of the NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute said in a telephone interview.
  Some of the leading factors behind high blood pressure include being obese or overweight, not getting regular physical activity, smoking and too much salt in the diet.
  The study showed blacks continued to have higher rates of high blood pressure than whites.
  During the 1999-2004 period, 61 percent of those with high blood pressure were undergoing treatment for it and 35 percent had their blood pressure under control, the researchers said. A number of different drugs are used to treat hypertension.
  The finding were based on data on a nationally representative sample of 16,351 US adults for 1988- 1994 and 14,430 adults for 1999-2004.
  31 The number of Americans with hypertension is A • smaller than before
  A. the same as before
  B. greater than before
  C. hard to calculate
 
  32. Hypertension may lead to
  A. stroke
  B. heart attack
  C. kidney failure
  D. all of the above
 
  33. Hypertension is sometimes called the “silent killer” because
  A. its causes remain unknown
  B. it often has no symptoms
  C. it’s a lifelong condition
  D. it9s treated secretly.
 
  34. Twenty-nine percent of US adults had hypertension
  A. during the 1999-2004 period
  B. during the 1988-2004 period
  C during the 1994-1999 period
  D. during the 1988-1994 period
 
  35. which of the following is NOT a likely cause of hypertension?
  A.Constant smoking
  B. Obesity or overweight
  C. Regular physical activity.
  D. Too much salt in the diet
 
        参考答案:31-45:CDBAC  
 Dangers Await Babies with Altitude
 
   Women who live in the world’s highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight babies, a new study suggests. These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.
  Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average. But it wasn’t clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are undernourished —many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.
  To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998. The babies were bom in both rich and poor areas of two cities: La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world, at 3.65 kilometers above sea level, while Santa Cruz is much lower, at 0.44 kilometers.
  Sure enough, Giussani found that the average birth weight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz. This was true in both high and low-income families. Even babies bom to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies bom to wealthy families in lofty La Paz. “We were very surprised by this result,,,says Giussani.
  The results suggest that babies bom at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child, “says Giussani.
  His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.
  Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life. People bom in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood, for example. Low birth weight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life.
  32. What does the new study discover?
  A. Babies bom to wealthy families are heavier
  B. Women living at high altitudes tend to give birth to underweight babies
  C. Newborns in cities are lighter than average
  D. Low-altitude babies have a high risk of heart disease in later life
 
  33. Giussan and his team are sure that
  A. babies bom in La Paz are on average lighter than in Santa Cruz
  B. people living in La Paz are poorer than those in Santa Cruz
  C. the birth weight of babies bom to wealthy families is above average
  D. mothers in La Paz are commonly under-nourished
 
  34. It can be inferred from what Giussan says in Paragraph 4 that
  A. he was very tired
  B. the study took longer than expected
  C. the finding was unexpected
  D. he was surprised to find low-income families in La Paz
 
  35. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth of underweight babies is
  A. lack of certain nutrition         B .reduction of oxygen levels
  A. poverty of their mothers         D .different family backgrounds 
 
        40. It can be learnt from the last paragraph that
  A. underweight babies have a shorter life span
  B. babies bom to poor families lack certain hormones before birth.
  C. high-altitude babies tend to have high blood pressure in their later life
  D. newborns in wealthy families have larger heads compared with their bodies.
 
        参考答案:BACBA  
第三篇 New US Plan for Disease Prevention
 
  Urging Americans to take responsibility for their health, Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson on Tuesday launched a $ 15 million program to try to encourage communities to do more to prevent chronic diseases like heart disease, cancer and diabetess .
  The initiative (倡议)highlights the cost of chronic disease^the leading causes of death in the United States—and outlines ways that people can prevent them, including better diet and increased exercise.
  “In the United States today,7 of 10 deaths and the vast majority of serious illness, disability and health care costs are caused by chronic diseases,,,the Health and Human Services Department said in a statement. The causes are often behavioral—smoking, poor eating habits and a lack of exercise.
  “I am convinced that preventing disease by promoting better health is a smart policy choice for our future,55 Thompson told a conference held to launch the initiative. “Our current health care system is not structured to deal with the rising costs of treating diseases that are largely preventable through changes in our lifestyle choices.”
  Thompson said heart disease and stroke will cost the country more than $351 billion in 2003. “These leading causes of death for men and women are largely preventable, yet we as a nation are not taking the steps necessary for us to lead healthier, longer lives,” he said.
  The $ 15 million is scheduled to go to communities to promote prevention, pushing for changes as simple as building sidewalks to encourage people to walk more. Daily exercise such as walking can prevent and even reverse heart disease and diabetes, and prevent cancer and strokes.
  The money will also go to community organizations, clinics and nutritionists (营养学家)who are being encouraged to work together to educate people at risk of diabetes about what they can do to prevent it and encourage more cancer screening.
  The American Cancer Society estimates that half of all cancers can be caught by screening. If such cancers were all caught by early screening, the Society estimates that the survival rate for cancer would rise to 95 percent.
  41. The $15 million program is aimed at
  A. promoting disease prevention
  B. building more sidewalks
  C. helping needy communities
  D. wiping out chronic diseases
 
  42. Which of the following is NOT true of chronic diseases in the US?
  A. They often result in unhealthy lifestyles.
  B. They account for 70% of all deaths.
  C. They are responsible for most of the health care costs.
  D. They are largely preventable
 
  43 The author mentions all the following as ways of disease prevention EXCEPT
  A. better diet
  B. daily screening
  C. more exercise
  D. reduction on smoking
 
  44. The passage indicates that more money spent on disease prevention will mean
  A. greater responsibility of the government
  B. less money needed for disease treatment
  C. higher costs of health care
  D. more lifestyle choices for people
 
  45. Early cancer screening can help reduce significantly
  A. the death rates for all chronic diseases
  B. the kinds of cancer attacking people
  C. the cancer incidence rate
  D. the cancer death rate
 
        参考答案: AABDD
 
第5部分:补全短文(第46-50题,每题2分,共10分)
  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别 放回原有位置,以恢复文章面貌。
 
  Lung Cancer
 
  The death rate due to cancer of the lungs has increased more than 800 percent in males and has more than doubled in females during the last 25 years.     (46) There are many possible causes, but it is still controversial which are most blameworthy. Those factors which have been mentioned most frequently are the presence of foreign particles and other irritants in the air (smoke particles, smog, exhaust fumes), and the smoking of cigarettes and cigars.
          (47) Among heavy smokers ^21 to 30 cigarettes per day ^the mortality rate from lung cancer is nearly 17 times the rate from nonsmokers. It is expected the death rate among women will increase as the present high rate of smoking among women has its effect.
  Sometimes cases of lung cancer are discovered at the time an x-ray is taken for the purpose of detecting tuberculosis. Too often, however, a current emphasis upon the danger of exposure to radiation 1 from X-ray machines can frighten people away from routine chest X-rays and thus prevent an early diagnosis of lung cancer.
        (48) Modem X-ray machines in competent hands pose such slight danger,at least to those over 40 years of age, that this would be much more than offset by the advantages of discovering a tumor while it is small enough to be completely removed.3
           (49) The tumor may grow until the bronchus is blocked, cutting off6 the supply of air to that lung. The lung then collapses, and the secretions trapped in the lung spaces become infected, with a resulting pneumonia or the formation of a lung abscess. Such a lung cancer can also spread to cause secondary growths in the lymph nodes7 of the chest and neck as well as in the brain and other parts of the body. The only treatment that offers a possibility of cure, before secondary growths have had time to form, is to remove the lung completely. (50)
  Malignant tumors of the stomach, the breast, the prostate gland8 and other organs may spread to the lungs, causing secondary growths.
  A. This operation is called pneumonectomy.
  B. It is considerably higher in urban and industrial areas than in rural districts.
  C. Routine X-ray chest examination is not dangerous.
  D. Numerous studies have demonstrated a striking correlation between the death rate from lung cancer and smoking habits.
  E. Early detection is absolutely essential if any possibility of cure is to be maintained.
  F. A common form of lung cancer is bronchogenic carcinoma4,so-called because the malignancy originates in5 a bronchus.
 
        参考答案:46-50:BDEFA
第6部分:完形填空(第51-65题,每题1分,共15分)
  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。
 
  Eating Potatoes Gives Your Immunes System a Boost
 
  Eating potatoes is not only good for bowel health, but also for the whole immune system, especially when they come in the      (51) of a potato salad or eaten cold. In a study on an animal model, researchers in Spain found that pigs    (52) with large quantities of raw potato starch (RPS)1 not only had a healthier bowel, but also decreased levels of white blood cells,such as leucocytes and lymphocytes in their blood. White blood cells are produced as a result of inflammation or disease, generally when the body is    (53)
  The general down-regulation of leucocytes     (54) by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficial effect, a generally more healthy body. The reduction in leucocyte levels was about 15 percent.Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative     (55) reduced levels of inflammation, but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density and lymphocyte apoptosis is    (56).
  In what was the longest study of its (57), pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to find out the effect of starch on bowel health. "The use of raw potato starch in this experiment is (58) to simulate the effects of a diet high in resistant starch,” said study leader Jose Francisco Perez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona3,Spain.
  Humans do not eat raw potatoes, (59) they do eat a lot of foods that contain resistant starch,such as cold boiled potatoes, legumes, grains, green bananas, pasta and cereals. About 10 percent of the starch (60) by human is resistant starch starch that is not digested in the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine (61) it ferments. Starch consumption is thought to reduce the risk of large bowel cancer and may also have an effect (62) irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)4.
  Immunology expert Lena Ohman's team previously found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not     (63) for IBS patients, but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to the gut,which support the hypothesis of IBS being at least    (64) an inflammatory disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by the Spanish is therefore interesting, and a    (65) of resistant starch may be worth trying in IBS patients.
  51 A type         B class         C manner         D form
  52 A sent         B brought         C fed         D taken
  53 A challenged         B considered         C delivered         D encouraged
  54 A caused         B observed         C participated         D covered
  55 A of         B to         C into         D in
  56 A amusing         B frustrating         C surprising         D charming
  57 A shape         B way         C fashion         D kind
  58 A designated         B designed         C discovered         D displayed
  59 A so         B but         C since         D as
  60 A eaten         B produced         C searched         D located
  61 A when         B which          C why         D where
  62 A on         B onto         C under         D beneath
  63 A choose         B value         C vary         D increase
  64 A totally         B partially         C luckily         D pleasantly
  65 A role         B secret         C function         D diet
 
        参考答案:51-65:DABCD  DADAD  CCBBA

71
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